War for the Future

Rome

Richmond Against the World

Welcome to the RVA Global Tour. eat great food, see great art, take selfies with history, and earn prizes at the museum. 

  1. Snap a photo with two or more posters. 

  2. visit the american civil war museum to get your prize.

Scroll down for Giuseppe Garibaldi’s story, find others at the tour home page, and take off around the world… from Richmond! [Note: This is a prototype test of the Global Tour. Please let us know what you think! email to cgraham@acwm.org]

Garibaldi at Mentana, 3 November 1867.  Wounded while leading his army on Rome, Garibaldi and his men temporarily retreated.

Garibaldi at Mentana, 3 November 1867. Wounded while leading his army on Rome, Garibaldi and his men temporarily retreated.

 
Garibaldi had spent part of his youth in Uruguay, where he began wearing the ponchos and red shirts that later made him a European fashion icon.

Garibaldi had spent part of his youth in Uruguay, where he began wearing the ponchos and red shirts that later made him a European fashion icon.

Italian revolutionary Giuseppe Garibaldi marched his small army toward Rome in the summer of 1862 with the rallying cry, “Rome or Death!” The flamboyant radical intended to unify Italy under an independent secular government. He had already absorbed the Kingdom of Two Sicilies into his cause, leaving the Sicilian Consulate in Richmond’s primary district for international commerce, Shockoe Slip, with rather little to do.

Garibaldi called for liberal reform of old institutions in Italy and beyond, including the emancipation of slaves, and his assaults on authority galvanized conservatives in the western world. Princess Eugenie, the wife of Napoleon II of France condemned Garibaldi with the cry, “Death if they like, but Rome never!”

Confederate representatives in Europe were also horrified by Garibaldi’s liberal attacks on authority. Henry Hotze, a Confederate journalist in London published a stinging condemnation of Garibaldi in particular and, ironically, of rebellion to legitimate authority in general.

Instability rocked all of Europe. While Italians marched, Prussians began asserting their growing power, and Russia violently crushed a Polish independence movement. These liberal revolutions and national shows of force represented threats to the rule of law that Confederates could not abide. To Hotze, European chaos matched only the “unbridled license of the Republican Party in America.”

Tennessee congressman Henry Foote stood in the congress and proclaimed that the new Confederate constitution stood as an example of stability, of “permanent government, both defacto and de jure.”

Within ten years of Foote’s proclamation Italy was unified, Prussia had humiliated France, and Russia stood as a growing and unpredictable power in the world while the Confederacy lay in ashes.

 

Find Rome in Richmond

 
 

10 Italian Cafe in Carytown offers a taste of Rome that would make Girabaldi feel at home.

 
 

Consular offices were clustered along Main Street--One block from Bank Street: Customs House and Capitol Square--between 10th and 13th and some resided in the American Hotel on the south side of the street. Find Garibaldi there, waiting in line to take a Segway tour.